8-K
CONSTELLATION PHARMACEUTICALS INC false 0001434418 --12-31 0001434418 2021-07-15 2021-07-15

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM 8-K

 

 

CURRENT REPORT

PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(D)

OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

Date of report (Date of earliest event reported): July 15, 2021

 

 

CONSTELLATION PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Delaware   001-38584   26-1741721

(State or other jurisdiction

of incorporation or organization)

  (Commission
File Number)
 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

215 First Street, Suite 200

Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142

(Address of Principal Executive Offices) (Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code:    (617) 714-0555

 

 

Check the appropriate box below if the Form 8-K filing is intended to simultaneously satisfy the filing obligation of the registrant under any of the following provisions (see General Instruction A.2. below):

 

Written communications pursuant to Rule 425 under the Securities Act (17 CFR 230.425)

 

Soliciting material pursuant to Rule 14a-12 under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14a-12)

 

Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 14d-2(b) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14d-2(b))

 

Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 13e-4(c) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.13e-4(c))

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class

 

Trading

Symbol(s)

 

Name of each exchange

on which registered

Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share   CNST   Nasdaq Global Select Market

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933 (§230.405 of this chapter) or Rule 12b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (§240.12b-2 of this chapter).

 

Emerging Growth Company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

 

 

 


Item 2.01

Completion of Acquisition or Disposition of Assets.

As previously disclosed, on June 2, 2021, Constellation Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Constellation”), entered into an Agreement and Plan of Merger (“Merger Agreement”) with MorphoSys AG, a German stock corporation (Aktiengesellschaft) (“MorphoSys”), and MorphoSys Development Inc., a Delaware corporation and an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of MorphoSys (“Purchaser”).

Pursuant to the Merger Agreement, and upon the terms and subject to the conditions thereof, on June 16, 2021, Purchaser commenced a tender offer (the “Offer”) to purchase all of the outstanding shares (the “Shares”) of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, of Constellation, other than any Shares held immediately prior to the Effective Time (as defined in the Merger Agreement) by Constellation (or held in Constellation’s treasury) and any Shares held immediately prior to the Effective Time by MorphoSys, Purchaser or any other direct or indirect wholly owned subsidiary of MorphoSys (the “Excluded Shares”), at a price of $34.00 per Share (the “Offer Price”), net to the seller in cash, without interest and subject to any withholding of taxes.

The Offer expired at one minute after 11:59 p.m., New York City Time, on July 14, 2021. According to Computershare Trust Company, N.A. and Computershare, Inc., the depository for the Offer, 42,811,957 Shares were validly tendered and not validly withdrawn in the Offer, representing approximately 89% of the outstanding Shares. The number of Shares tendered satisfied the condition to the Offer that there be validly tendered and not validly withdrawn prior to the expiration of the Offer a number of Shares that, considered together with all other Shares (if any) beneficially owned by MorphoSys and its affiliates, represent one more Share than 50% of the total number of Shares outstanding at the expiration of the Offer. All conditions to the Offer having been satisfied or waived, MorphoSys and Purchaser accepted for payment all Shares validly tendered and not validly withdrawn.

Following the consummation of the Offer, the remaining conditions to the Merger set forth in the Merger Agreement were satisfied or waived, and on July 15, 2021, Purchaser merged with and into Constellation pursuant to Section 251(h) of the Delaware General Corporation Law, as amended (the “DGCL”), with Constellation being the surviving corporation (the “Merger”). At the effective time of the Merger, each Share (other than (i) the Excluded Shares and (ii) Shares held by stockholders who have properly exercised and perfected their demands for appraisal of such Shares in accordance with the DGCL and have neither withdrawn nor lost such rights prior to the effective time of the Merger) converted into the right to receive an amount in cash equal to the Offer Price, net to the holder of such Share in cash, without interest and subject to any required withholding of taxes. Also at the effective time of the Merger, each outstanding and unexercised Constellation stock option was cancelled in exchange for the right to receive a cash payment equal to the product of (a) the excess, if any, of the Merger Consideration over the per share exercise price, and (b) the number of shares of Constellation common stock subject to such stock option.

The aggregate consideration paid by Purchaser to acquire the Shares in the Offer and Merger, and settle the Constellation stock options in the Merger, was approximately $1.7 billion.

The foregoing description of the Merger Agreement and the transactions contemplated thereby does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the Merger Agreement, a copy of which was filed as Exhibit 2.1 to the Current Report on Form 8-K filed by Constellation with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) on June 2, 2021 and which is incorporated by reference herein.

 

Item 3.01

Notice of Delisting or Failure to Satisfy a Continued Listing Rule or Standard; Transfer of Listing.

In connection with the consummation of the transactions described in Item 2.01 of this Current Report on Form 8-K, which is incorporated by reference herein, Constellation notified The Nasdaq Global Select Market (“Nasdaq”) of the consummation of the Merger and requested that Nasdaq (i) halt trading in the Shares, (ii) suspend trading of and delist the Shares and (iii) file with the SEC a notification of removal from listing and/or registration on Form 25 to effect the delisting of all Shares from Nasdaq and the deregistration of such Shares under Section 12(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). The trading of the Shares was halted following after-hours trading on the evening of July 14, 2021, and Nasdaq will file the Form 25 with the SEC on July 15, 2021. In addition, Constellation intends to file a certification and notice of termination of registration on Form 15 with the SEC requesting the termination of registration of the Shares under Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act and the suspension of reporting obligations under Sections 13 and 15(d) of the Exchange Act with respect to the Shares.

 

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Item 3.03

Material Modification to Rights of Security Holders.

The information set forth under Items 2.01, 3.01, and 5.03 of this Current Report on Form 8-K is incorporated by reference into this Item 3.03.

 

Item 5.01

Changes in Control of Registrant.

The information set forth under Items 2.01, 3.01, and 5.03 of this Current Report on Form 8-K is incorporated by reference into this Item 5.01.

 

Item 5.02

Departure of Certain Officers; Election of Directors; Appointment of Certain Officers; Compensatory Arrangements of Certain Officers.

In accordance with the Merger Agreement, at the effective time of the Merger, each of Mark A. Goldsmith, Jigar Raythatha, James E. Audia, Scott Braunstein, Steven L. Hoerter, Richard Levy, and Elizabeth G. Tréhu resigned from the board of directors of Constellation. These resignations were in connection with the Merger and not as a result of any disagreements between Constellation and the resigning individuals on any matters relating to Constellation’s operations, policies or practices.

In accordance with the Merger Agreement, at the effective time of the Merger, Jigar Raythatha resigned as Chief Executive Officer of Constellation, Emma Reeve resigned as Chief Financial Officer of Constellation, Karen Valentine resigned as Chief Legal Officer and General Counsel of Constellation, Patrick Trojer resigned as Chief Scientific Officer of Constellation, and Jeffrey Humphrey resigned as Chief Medical Officer of Constellation.

Pursuant to the terms of the Merger Agreement, at the effective time of the Merger, the director and officer of Purchaser as of immediately prior to the effective time of the Merger became the director and officer of Constellation. Kathleen Warnecke assumed the role of director and Lara Smith-Weber assumed the roles of President, Secretary and Treasurer. Information regarding Ms. Warnecke and Ms. Smith-Weber is contained in the Offer to Purchase filed as Exhibit (a)(1)(A) to the Tender Offer Statement on Schedule TO, filed by MorphoSys and Purchaser with the SEC on June 16, 2021, which information is incorporated herein by reference.

Effective as of July 14, 2021 the compensation committee of the board of directors of Constellation supplemented the definition of “Good Reason” under Constellation’s Amended and Restated Change in Control Severance Plan to add to such definition a material diminution in target annual cash bonus opportunity.

 

Item 5.03

Amendments to Articles of Incorporation or Bylaws; Change in Fiscal Year.

Pursuant to the terms of the Merger Agreement, at the effective time of the Merger, Constellation’s certificate of incorporation and bylaws were each amended and restated in their entirety. Copies of the amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws are attached as Exhibit 3.1 and Exhibit 3.2, respectively, to this Current Report on Form 8-K, and are incorporated herein by reference.

 

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Item 9.01

Financial Statements and Exhibits.

(d) Exhibits

 

Exhibit

    No.    

  

Description of Exhibit

2.1    Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of June 2, 2021, among Constellation Pharmaceuticals, Inc., MorphoSys AG, and MorphoSys Development Inc. (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 2.1 to the Current Report on Form 8-K filed by Constellation Pharmaceuticals, Inc. on June 2, 2021)*
3.1    Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of Constellation Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
3.2    Amended and Restated Bylaws of Constellation Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
104    Cover Page Interactive Data File (embedded within the Inline XBRL document)

 

*

Schedules have been omitted pursuant to Item 601(a)(5) of Regulation S-K. Constellation hereby undertakes to furnish supplemental copies of any of the omitted schedules upon request by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission; provided, that Constellation may request confidential treatment pursuant to Rule 24b-2 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, for any schedules so furnished.

 

4


SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned hereunto duly authorized.

Date: July 15, 2021

 

CONSTELLATION PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
By:  

/s/ Lara Smith-Weber

Name:   Lara Smith-Weber
Title:   President, Secretary, Treasurer
EX-3.1

Exhibit 3.1

AMENDED AND RESTATED

CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION

OF

CONSTELLATION PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

FIRST: The name of the Corporation is Constellation Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (hereinafter the “Corporation”).

SECOND: The address of the registered office of the Corporation in the State of Delaware is 874 Walker Road, Suite C, Dover, County of Kent, Delaware 19904. The name of its registered agent at that address is United Corporate Services, Inc.

THIRD: The purpose of the Corporation is to engage in any lawful act or activity for which a corporation may be organized under the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware as set forth in Title 8 of the Delaware Code (the “DGCL”).

FOURTH: The total number of shares of stock which the Corporation shall have authority to issue is 5,000 shares of Common Stock, each having a par value of $0.01.

FIFTH: The following provisions are inserted for the management of the business and the conduct of the affairs of the Corporation, and for further definition, limitation and regulation of the powers of the Corporation and of its directors and stockholders:

(1) The business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of the Board of Directors.

(2) The directors shall have concurrent power with the stockholders to make, alter, amend, change, add to or repeal the By-Laws of the Corporation.


(3) The number of directors of the Corporation shall be as from time to time fixed by, or in the manner provided in, the By-Laws of the Corporation. Election of directors need not be by written ballot unless the By-Laws so provide.

(4) No director shall be personally liable to the Corporation or any of its stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except for liability (i) for any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to the Corporation or its stockholders, (ii) for acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law, (iii) pursuant to Section 174 of the DGCL or (iv) for any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit. Any repeal or modification of this Article FIFTH by the stockholders of the Corporation shall not adversely affect any right or protection of a director of the Corporation existing at the time of such repeal or modification with respect to acts or omissions occurring prior to such repeal or modification.

(5) In addition to the powers and authority hereinbefore or by statute expressly conferred upon them, the directors are hereby empowered to exercise all such powers and do all such acts and things as may be exercised or done by the Corporation, subject, nevertheless, to the provisions of the DGCL, this Certificate of Incorporation, and any By-Laws adopted by the stockholders; provided, however, that no By-Laws hereafter adopted by the stockholders shall invalidate any prior act of the directors which would have been valid if such By-Laws had not been adopted.

SIXTH: Meetings of stockholders may be held within or without the State of Delaware, as the By-Laws may provide. The books of the Corporation may be kept (subject to any provision contained in the DGCL) outside the State of Delaware at such place or places as may be designated from time to time by the Board of Directors or in the By-Laws of the Corporation.

SEVENTH The Corporation reserves the right to amend, alter, change or repeal any provision contained in this Certificate of Incorporation, in the manner now or hereafter prescribed by statute, and all rights conferred upon stockholders herein are granted subject to this reservation.

 

2

EX-3.2

Exhibit 3.2

AMENDED AND RESTATED BYLAWS

OF

CONSTELLATION PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

A Delaware Corporation

Effective July 15, 2021


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

          Page

ARTICLE I

OFFICES

 

Section 1.   

Registered Office

     1  
Section 2.   

Other Offices

     1  

ARTICLE II

MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS

 

Section 1.   

Place of Meetings

     1  
Section 2.   

Annual Meetings

     1  
Section 3.   

Special Meetings

     1  
Section 4.   

Notice

     2  
Section 5.   

Adjournments and Postponements

     2  
Section 6.   

Quorum

     2  
Section 7.   

Voting

     3  
Section 8.   

Proxies

     3  
Section 9.   

Consent of Stockholders in Lieu of Meeting

     3  
Section 10.   

List of Stockholders Entitled to Vote

     4  
Section 11.   

Record Date

     5  
Section 12.   

Stock Ledger

     6  
Section 13.   

Conduct of Meetings

     6  

ARTICLE III

DIRECTORS

 

Section 1.   

Number and Election of Directors

     7  
Section 2.   

Vacancies

     7  
Section 3.   

Duties and Powers

     7  
Section 4.   

Meetings

     7  
Section 5.   

Organization

     7  
Section 6.   

Resignations and Removals of Directors

     8  
Section 7.   

Quorum

     8  
Section 8.   

Actions of the Board by Written Consent

     8  
Section 9.   

Meetings by Means of Conference Telephone

     9  
Section 10.   

Committees

     9  
Section 11.   

Subcommittees

     9  
Section 12.   

Compensation

     9  
Section 13.   

Interested Directors

     10  


ARTICLE IV

OFFICERS

 

Section 1.   

General

     10  
Section 2.   

Election

     10  
Section 3.   

Voting Securities Owned by the Corporation

     10  
Section 4.   

Chairman of the Board of Directors

     11  
Section 5.   

President

     11  
Section 6.   

Vice Presidents

     11  
Section 7.   

Secretary

     12  
Section 8.   

Treasurer

     12  
Section 9.   

Assistant Secretaries

     12  
Section 10.   

Assistant Treasurers

     12  
Section 11.   

Other Officers

     13  

ARTICLE V

STOCK

 

Section 1.   

Form of Certificates

     13  
Section 2.   

Signatures

     13  
Section 3.   

Lost Certificates

     13  
Section 4.   

Transfers

     13  
Section 5.   

Dividend Record Date

     14  
Section 6.   

Record Owners

     14  
Section 7.   

Transfer and Registry Agents

     14  

ARTICLE VI

NOTICES

 

Section 1.   

Notices

     14  
Section 2.   

Waivers of Notice

     15  

ARTICLE VII

GENERAL PROVISIONS

 

Section 1.   

Dividends

     15  
Section 2.   

Disbursements

     16  
Section 3.   

Fiscal Year

     16  
Section 4.   

Corporate Seal

     16  

 

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ARTICLE VIII

INDEMNIFICATION

 

Section 1.    Power to Indemnify in Actions, Suits or Proceedings other than Those by or in the Right of the Corporation      16  
Section 2.    Power to Indemnify in Actions, Suits or Proceedings by or in the Right of the Corporation      16  
Section 3.    Authorization of Indemnification      17  
Section 4.    Good Faith Defined      17  
Section 5.    Indemnification by a Court      17  
Section 6.    Expenses Payable in Advance      18  
Section 7.    Nonexclusivity of Indemnification and Advancement of Expenses      18  
Section 8.    Insurance      18  
Section 9.    Certain Definitions      19  
Section 10.    Survival of Indemnification and Advancement of Expenses      19  
Section 11.    Limitation on Indemnification      19  
Section 12.    Indemnification of Employees and Agents      19  

ARTICLE IX

FORUM FOR ADJUDICATION OF CERTAIN DISPUTES

 

Section 1.    Forum for Adjudication of Certain Disputes      20  

ARTICLE X

AMENDMENTS

 

Section 1.    Amendments      20  
Section 2.    Entire Board of Directors      20  

 

iii


AMENDED AND RESTATED BYLAWS

OF

CONSTELLATION PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

(hereinafter called the “Corporation”)

ARTICLE I

OFFICES

Section 1. Registered Office. The registered office of the Corporation shall be 874 Walker Road, Suite C, Dover, County of Kent, Delaware 19904.

Section 2. Other Offices. The Corporation may also have offices at such other places, both within and without the State of Delaware, as the Board of Directors may from time to time determine.

ARTICLE II

MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS

Section 1. Place of Meetings. Meetings of the stockholders for the election of directors or for any other purpose shall be held at such time and place, either within or without the State of Delaware, as shall be designated from time to time by the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may, in its sole discretion, determine that a meeting of the stockholders shall not be held at any place, but may instead be held solely by means of remote communication in the manner authorized by Section 211 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “DGCL”).

Section 2. Annual Meetings. The Annual Meeting of Stockholders for the election of directors shall be held on such date and at such time as shall be designated from time to time by the Board of Directors. Any other proper business may be transacted at the Annual Meeting of Stockholders.

Section 3. Special Meetings. Unless otherwise required by law or by the certificate of incorporation of the Corporation, as amended and restated from time to time (the “Certificate of Incorporation”), Special Meetings of Stockholders, for any purpose or purposes, may be called by either (i) the Chairman of the Board of Directors, if there be one, or (ii) the President, (iii) any Vice President, if there be one, (iv) the Secretary or (v) any Assistant Secretary, if there be one, and shall be called by any such officer at the request in writing of (i) the Board of Directors, (ii) a committee of the Board of Directors that has been duly designated by the Board of Directors and whose powers and authority include the power to call such meetings or (iii) stockholders owning a majority of the capital stock of the Corporation issued and outstanding and entitled to vote on the matter for which such Special Meeting of Stockholders is called. Such request shall state the purpose or purposes of the proposed meeting. At a Special Meeting of Stockholders, only such business shall be conducted as shall be specified in the notice of meeting (or any supplement thereto).


Section 4. Notice. Whenever stockholders are required or permitted to take any action at a meeting, a notice of the meeting, in the form of a writing or electronic transmission, shall be given which shall state the place, if any, date and hour of the meeting, the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such meeting, the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at such meeting, if such date is different from the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of such meeting and, in the case of a Special Meeting, the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called. Unless otherwise required by law, notice of any meeting shall be given not less than ten (10) nor more than sixty (60) days before the date of the meeting to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting as of the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of such meeting.

Section 5. Adjournments and Postponements. Any meeting of the stockholders may be adjourned or postponed from time to time by the chairman of such meeting or by the Board of Directors, without the need for approval thereof by stockholders to reconvene or convene, respectively at the same or some other place. Notice need not be given of any such adjourned or postponed meeting if the time and place, if any, thereof, and the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such adjourned or postponed meeting are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken or, with respect to a postponed meeting, are publicly announced. At the adjourned or postponed meeting, the Corporation may transact any business which might have been transacted at the original meeting. If the adjournment or postponement is for more than thirty (30) days, notice of the adjourned or postponed meeting in accordance with the requirements of Section 4 of this Article II shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting. If, after the adjournment or postponement, a new record date for stockholders entitled to vote is fixed for the adjourned or postponed meeting, the Board of Directors shall fix a new record date for notice of such adjourned or postponed meeting in accordance with Section 11 of this Article II, and shall give notice of the adjourned or postponed meeting to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at such adjourned or postponed meeting as of the record date fixed for notice of such adjourned or postponed meeting.

Section 6. Quorum. Unless otherwise required by the DGCL or other applicable law or the Certificate of Incorporation, the holders of a majority of the Corporation’s capital stock issued and outstanding and entitled to vote thereat, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum at all meetings of the stockholders for the transaction of business. A quorum, once established, shall not be broken by the withdrawal of enough votes to leave less than a quorum. If, however, such quorum shall not be present or represented at any meeting of the stockholders, the stockholders entitled to vote thereat, present in person or represented by proxy, shall have power to adjourn the meeting from time to time, in the manner provided in Section 5 of this Article II, until a quorum shall be present or represented.

 

2


Section 7. Voting. Unless otherwise required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, any question brought before any meeting of the stockholders, other than the election of directors, shall be decided by the vote of the holders of a majority of the total number of votes of the Corporation’s capital stock present at the meeting in person or represented by proxy and entitled to vote on such question, voting as a single class. Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation, and subject to Section 11(a) of this Article II, each stockholder represented at a meeting of the stockholders shall be entitled to cast one (1) vote for each share of the capital stock entitled to vote thereat held by such stockholder. Such votes may be cast in person or by proxy as provided in Section 8 of this Article II. The Board of Directors, in its discretion, or the chairman of a meeting of the stockholders, in his discretion, may require that any votes cast at such meeting shall be cast by written ballot.

Section 8. Proxies. Each stockholder entitled to vote at a meeting of the stockholders or to express consent or dissent to corporate action in writing without a meeting may authorize another person or persons to act for such stockholder as proxy, but no such proxy shall be voted upon after three years from its date, unless such proxy provides for a longer period. Without limiting the manner in which a stockholder may authorize another person or persons to act for such stockholder as proxy, the following shall constitute a valid means by which a stockholder may grant such authority:

(i) A stockholder may execute a document authorizing another person or persons to act for such stockholder as proxy. Execution may be accomplished in the manner permitted by the DGCL or by electronic signature by the stockholder or such stockholder’s authorized officer, director, employee or agent signing such document or causing such person’s signature to be affixed to such document by any reasonable means, including, but not limited to, by facsimile signature.

(ii) A stockholder may authorize another person or persons to act for such stockholder as proxy by transmitting or authorizing the transmission of an electronic transmission to the person who will be the holder of the proxy or to a proxy solicitation firm, proxy support service organization or like agent duly authorized by the person who will be the holder of the proxy to receive such transmission, provided that any such transmission must either set forth or be submitted with information from which it can be determined that the transmission was authorized by the stockholder. If it is determined that such transmissions are valid, the inspectors or, if there are no inspectors, such other persons making that determination shall specify the information on which they relied.

Any copy, facsimile telecommunication or other reliable reproduction of the document (including any electronic transmission) authorizing another person or persons to act as proxy for a stockholder may be substituted or used in lieu of the original document for any and all purposes for which the original document could be used; provided, however, that such copy, facsimile telecommunication or other reproduction shall be a complete reproduction of the entire original document.

Section 9. Consent of Stockholders in Lieu of Meeting. Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation, any action required or permitted to be taken at any Annual or Special Meeting of Stockholders of the Corporation may be taken without a meeting, without prior notice and without a vote, if a consent or consents in writing, setting forth the action so taken, shall be executed by the holders of outstanding stock having not less than the minimum number of votes that would be necessary to authorize or take such action at a meeting at which all shares entitled

 

3


to vote thereon were present and voted and shall be delivered to the Corporation by delivery to its registered office in the State of Delaware, its principal place of business, or an officer or agent of the Corporation having custody of the book in which proceedings of meetings of the stockholders are recorded. Delivery made to the Corporation’s registered office shall be by hand or by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested. No written consent shall be effective to take the corporate action referred to therein unless written consents signed by a sufficient number of holders to take action are delivered to the Corporation in the manner required by this Section 9 within sixty (60) days of the first date on which a written consent is so delivered to the Corporation. Any person executing a consent may provide, whether through instruction to an agent or otherwise, that such a consent will be effective at a future time (including a time determined upon the happening of an event), no later than sixty (60) days after such instruction is given or such provision is made, if evidence of such instruction or provision is provided to the Corporation. Unless otherwise provided, any such consent shall be revocable prior to its becoming effective. An electronic transmission consenting to an action to be taken and transmitted by a stockholder or proxy holder, or by a person or persons authorized to act for a stockholder or proxy holder, shall be deemed to be written and signed for the purposes of this Section 9, provided that any such electronic transmission sets forth or is delivered with information from which the Corporation can determine (i) that the electronic transmission was transmitted by the stockholder or proxy holder or by a person or persons authorized to act for the stockholder or proxy holder and (ii) the date on which such stockholder or proxy holder or authorized person or persons transmitted such electronic transmission.

A consent given by electronic transmission shall be deemed delivered to the Corporation upon the earliest of: (i) when the consent enters an information processing system, if any, designated by the Corporation for receiving consents, so long as the electronic transmission is in a form capable of being processed by that system and the Corporation is able to retrieve that electronic transmission; (ii) when a paper reproduction of the consent is delivered to the Corporation’s principal place of business or an officer or agent of the Corporation having custody of the book in which proceedings of meetings of the stockholders are recorded; (iii) when a paper reproduction of the consent is delivered to the Corporation’s registered office by hand or by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested; or (iv) when delivered in such other manner, if any, provided by resolution of the Board of Directors. Any copy, facsimile or other reliable reproduction of a consent in writing may be substituted or used in lieu of the original writing for any and all purposes for which the original writing could be used, provided that such copy, facsimile or other reproduction shall be a complete reproduction of the entire original writing. Prompt notice of the taking of the corporate action without a meeting by less than unanimous written consent shall be given to those stockholders who have not consented in writing and who, if the action had been taken at a meeting, would have been entitled to notice of the meeting if the record date for notice of such meeting had been the date that written consents signed by a sufficient number of holders to take the action were delivered to the Corporation as provided above in this Section 9.

Section 10. List of Stockholders Entitled to Vote. The Corporation shall prepare, at least ten (10) days before every meeting of the stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting; provided, however, if the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote is less than ten (10) days before the meeting date, the list shall reflect the stockholders entitled to vote as of the tenth (10th) day before the meeting date. Such list shall

 

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be arranged in alphabetical order, and show the address of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder; provided that the Corporation shall not be required to include electronic mail addresses or other electronic contact information on such list. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder for any purpose germane to the meeting for a period of at least ten (10) days prior to the meeting (i) on a reasonably accessible electronic network, provided that the information required to gain access to such list is provided with the notice of the meeting, or (ii) during ordinary business hours, at the principal place of business of the Corporation. In the event that the Corporation determines to make the list available on an electronic network, the Corporation may take reasonable steps to ensure that such information is available only to stockholders of the Corporation. If the meeting is to be held at a place, then a list of stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting shall be produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time thereof and may be examined by any stockholder who is present. If the meeting is to be held solely by means of remote communication, then the list shall also be open to the examination of any stockholder during the whole time of the meeting on a reasonably accessible electronic network, and the information required to access such list shall be provided with the notice of the meeting.

Section 11. Record Date.

(a) In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of any meeting of the stockholders or any adjournment thereof, the Board of Directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors, and which record date shall not be more than sixty (60) nor less than ten (10) days before the date of such meeting. If the Board of Directors so fixes a date, such date shall also be the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at such meeting unless the Board of Directors determines, at the time it fixes such record date, that a later date on or before the date of the meeting shall be the date for making such determination. If no record date is fixed by the Board of Directors, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of and to vote at a meeting of the stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which notice is given, or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held. A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of the stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the Board of Directors may fix a new record date for determination of stockholders entitled to vote at the adjourned meeting, and in such case shall also fix, as the record date for stockholders entitled to notice of such adjourned meeting, the same or an earlier date as that fixed for determination of stockholders entitled to vote at the adjourned meeting in accordance with the foregoing provisions of this Section 11.

(b) In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting, the Board of Directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors, and which record date shall not be more than ten (10) days after the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors. If no record date has been fixed by the Board of Directors, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting, when no prior action by the Board of Directors is required by applicable law, shall be the first date on which a

 

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signed written consent setting forth the action taken or proposed to be taken is delivered to the Corporation by delivery to its registered office in the State of Delaware, its principal place of business, or an officer or agent of the Corporation having custody of the book in which proceedings of meetings of the stockholders are recorded. Delivery made to the Corporation’s registered office shall be by hand or by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested. If no record date has been fixed by the Board of Directors and prior action by the Board of Directors is required by applicable law, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to consent to corporate action in writing without a meeting shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board of Directors adopts the resolution taking such prior action.

Section 12. Stock Ledger. The stock ledger of the Corporation shall be the only evidence as to who are the stockholders entitled to examine the list of stockholders required by Section 10 of this Article II or the books and records of the Corporation, or to vote in person or by proxy at any meeting of stockholders. As used herein, the stock ledger of the Corporation shall refer to one (1) or more records administered by or on behalf of the Corporation in which the names of all of the Corporation’s stockholders of record, the address and number of shares registered in the name of each such stockholder, and all issuances and transfer of stock of the Corporation are recorded in accordance with Section 224 of the DGCL.

Section 13. Conduct of Meetings. The Board of Directors of the Corporation may adopt by resolution such rules and regulations for the conduct of any meeting of the stockholders as it shall deem appropriate. Meetings of stockholders shall be presided over by the Chairman of the Board of Directors, if there shall be one, or in his absence, or there shall not be a Chairman of the Board of Directors or in his absence, the President. The Board of Directors shall have the authority to appoint a temporary chairman to serve at any meeting of the stockholders if the Chairman of the Board of Directors or the President is unable to do so for any reason. Except to the extent inconsistent with any rules and regulations adopted by the Board of Directors, the chairman of any meeting of the stockholders shall have the right and authority to prescribe such rules, regulations and procedures and to do all such acts as, in the judgment of such chairman, are appropriate for the proper conduct of the meeting. Such rules, regulations or procedures, whether adopted by the Board of Directors or prescribed by the chairman of the meeting, may include, without limitation, the following: (i) the establishment of an agenda or order of business for the meeting; (ii) the determination of when the polls shall open and close for any given matter to be voted on at the meeting; (iii) rules and procedures for maintaining order at the meeting and the safety of those present; (iv) limitations on attendance at or participation in the meeting to stockholders of record of the Corporation, their duly authorized and constituted proxies or such other persons as the chairman of the meeting shall determine; (v) restrictions on entry to the meeting after the time fixed for the commencement thereof; and (vi) limitations on the time allotted to questions or comments by stockholders.

 

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ARTICLE III

DIRECTORS

Section 1. Number and Election of Directors. The Board of Directors shall consist of not less than one nor more than three members, each of whom shall be a natural person, the exact number of which shall initially be fixed by the sole incorporator of the Corporation and thereafter from time to time by the Board of Directors. Except as provided in Section 2 of this Article III, directors shall be elected by a plurality of the votes cast at each Annual Meeting of Stockholders and each director so elected shall hold office until the next Annual Meeting of Stockholders and until such director’s successor is duly elected and qualified, or until such director’s earlier death, resignation or removal. Directors need not be stockholders.

Section 2. Vacancies. Unless otherwise required by law or the Certificate of Incorporation, vacancies on the Board of Directors or any committee thereof resulting from the death, resignation or removal of a director, or from an increase in the number of directors constituting the Board of Directors or such committee or otherwise, may be filled only by a majority of the directors then in office, though less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining director. The directors so chosen shall, in the case of the Board of Directors, hold office until the next annual election and until their successors are duly elected and qualified, or until their earlier death, resignation or removal and, in the case of any committee of the Board of Directors, shall hold office until their successors are duly appointed by the Board of Directors or until their earlier death, resignation or removal.

Section 3. Duties and Powers. The business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of the Board of Directors which may exercise all such powers of the Corporation except as may be otherwise provided in the DGCL, the Certificate of Incorporation, these Bylaws.

Section 4. Meetings. The Board of Directors and any committee thereof may hold meetings, both regular and special, either within or without the State of Delaware. Regular meetings of the Board of Directors or any committee thereof may be held without notice at such time and at such place as may from time to time be determined by the Board of Directors or such committee, respectively. Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be called by the Chairman of the Board of Directors, if there be one, the President, or by any director. Special meetings of any committee of the Board of Directors may be called by the chairman of such committee, if there be one, the President, or any director serving on such committee. Notice of any special meeting stating the place, date and hour of the meeting shall be given to each director (or, in the case of a committee, to each member of such committee) not less than twenty-four hours before the date of the meeting, by telephone, or in the form of a writing or electronic transmission, or on such shorter notice as the person or persons calling such meeting may deem necessary or appropriate in the circumstances.

Section 5. Organization. At each meeting of the Board of Directors or any committee thereof, the Chairman of the Board of Directors or the chairman of such committee, as the case may be, or, in his absence or if there be none, a director chosen by a majority of the directors present, shall act as chairman of such meeting. Except as provided below, the Secretary of the Corporation shall act as secretary at each meeting of the Board of Directors and of each committee thereof. In case the Secretary shall be absent from any meeting of the Board of Directors or of any committee thereof, an Assistant Secretary shall perform the duties of secretary at such meeting; and in the absence from any such meeting of the Secretary and all the Assistant Secretaries, the chairman of the meeting may appoint any person to act as secretary of the meeting. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the members of each committee of the Board of Directors may appoint any person to act as secretary of any meeting of such committee and the Secretary or any Assistant Secretary of the Corporation may, but need not if such committee so elects, serve in such capacity.

 

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Section 6. Resignations and Removals of Directors. Any director of the Corporation may resign from the Board of Directors or any committee thereof at any time, by giving notice in writing or by electronic transmission to the Chairman of the Board of Directors, if there be one, the President or the Secretary of the Corporation and, in the case of a committee, to the chairman of such committee, if there be one. Such resignation shall take effect when delivered or, if such resignation specifies a later effective time or an effective time, determined upon the happening of an event or events, in which case, such resignation takes effect upon such effective time. Unless otherwise specified in such resignation, the acceptance of such resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective. A resignation which is conditioned upon the director failing to receive a specified vote for reelection as a director may provide that it is irrevocable. Except as otherwise required by applicable law and subject to the rights, if any, of the holders of shares of preferred stock then outstanding, any director or the entire Board of Directors may be removed from office at any time, with or without cause, by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least a majority in voting power of the issued and outstanding capital stock of the Corporation entitled to vote in the election of directors. Any director serving on a committee of the Board of Directors may be removed from such committee at any time by the Board of Directors.

Section 7. Quorum. Except as otherwise required by law, or the Certificate of Incorporation, at all meetings of the Board of Directors or any committee thereof, a majority of the entire Board of Directors or a majority of the directors constituting such committee, as the case may be, shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business and the vote of a majority of the directors or committee members, as applicable, present at any meeting at which there is a quorum shall be the act of the Board of Directors or such committee, as applicable. If a quorum shall not be present at any meeting of the Board of Directors or any committee thereof, the directors present thereat may adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting of the time and place of the adjourned meeting, until a quorum shall be present.

Section 8. Actions of the Board by Written Consent. Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board of Directors or of any committee thereof may be taken without a meeting, if all the members of the Board of Directors or such committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing or by electronic transmission. Any person, whether or not then a director, may provide, through instruction to an agent or otherwise, that a consent to action will be effective at a future time (including a time determined upon the happening of an event) no later than sixty (60) days after such instruction is given or such provision is made and such consent shall be deemed to have been given at such effective time so long as such person is then a director and did not revoke the consent prior to such time. Any such consent shall be revocable prior to its becoming effective. After an action is taken, the consent or consents relating thereto shall be filed with the minutes of the proceedings of the Board of Directors, or the committee thereof, in the same paper or electronic form as the minutes are maintained.

 

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Section 9. Meetings by Means of Conference Telephone. Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, members of the Board of Directors of the Corporation, or any committee thereof, may participate in a meeting of the Board of Directors or such committee by means of a conference telephone or other communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and participation in a meeting pursuant to this Section 9 shall constitute presence in person at such meeting.

Section 10. Committees. The Board of Directors may designate one or more committees, each committee to consist of one or more of the directors of the Corporation. Each member of a committee must meet the requirements for membership, if any, imposed by applicable law. The Board of Directors may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of any such committee. In the absence or disqualification of a member of a committee, and in the absence of a designation by the Board of Directors of an alternate member to replace the absent or disqualified member, the member or members thereof present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not such member or members constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another qualified member of the Board of Directors to act at the meeting in the place of any absent or disqualified member. Any such committee, to the extent permitted by law and provided in the resolution establishing such committee, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board of Directors in the management of the business and affairs of the Corporation, and may authorize the seal of the Corporation to be affixed to all papers which may require it; provided, however, that no such committee shall have the power or authority to (i) approve, adopt, or recommend to the stockholders any action or matter (other than the election or removal of directors) expressly required by the DGCL to be submitted to stockholders for approval, or (ii) adopt, amend, or repeal any of these Bylaws. Each committee shall keep regular minutes and report to the Board of Directors when required. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this Article III, the resolution of the Board of Directors establishing any committee of the Board of Directors and/or the charter of any such committee may establish requirements or procedures relating to the governance and/or operation of such committee that are different from, or in addition to, those set forth in these Bylaws and, to the extent that there is any inconsistency between these Bylaws and any such resolution or charter, the terms of such resolution or charter shall be controlling.

Section 11. Subcommittees. Unless otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation, these Bylaws, or the resolution of the Board of Directors designating a committee, such committee may create one or more subcommittees, each subcommittee to consist of one or more members of the committee, and delegate to a subcommittee any or all of the powers and authority of the committee. Except for references to committees and members of committees in Section 10 of this Article III, every reference in these Bylaws to a committee of the Board of Directors or a member of a committee shall be deemed to include a reference to a subcommittee or member of a subcommittee.

Section 12. Compensation. The directors may be paid their expenses, if any, of attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors and may be paid a fixed sum for attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors or a stated salary for service as director, payable in cash or securities. No such payment shall preclude any director from serving the Corporation in any other capacity and receiving compensation therefor. Members of special or standing committees may be allowed like compensation for service as committee members.

 

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Section 13. Interested Directors. No contract or transaction between the Corporation and one or more of its directors or officers, or between the Corporation and any other corporation, partnership, association or other organization in which one or more of its directors or officers are directors or officers or have a financial interest, shall be void or voidable solely for this reason, or solely because the director or officer is present at or participates in the meeting of the Board of Directors or committee thereof which authorizes the contract or transaction, or solely because any such director’s or officer’s vote is counted for such purpose if: (i) the material facts as to the director’s or officer’s relationship or interest and as to the contract or transaction are disclosed or are known to the Board of Directors or the committee, and the Board of Directors or committee in good faith authorizes the contract or transaction by the affirmative votes of a majority of the disinterested directors, even though the disinterested directors be less than a quorum; or (ii) the material facts as to the director’s or officer’s relationship or interest and as to the contract or transaction are disclosed or are known to the stockholders entitled to vote thereon, and the contract or transaction is specifically approved in good faith by vote of the stockholders; or (iii) the contract or transaction is fair as to the Corporation as of the time it is authorized, approved or ratified by the Board of Directors, a committee thereof or the stockholders. Common or interested directors may be counted in determining the presence of a quorum at a meeting of the Board of Directors or of a committee which authorizes such contract or transaction.

ARTICLE IV

OFFICERS

Section 1. General. The officers of the Corporation shall be chosen by the Board of Directors and shall be a President, a Secretary and a Treasurer. The Board of Directors, in its discretion, also may choose a Chairman of the Board of Directors (who must be a director) and one or more Vice Presidents, Assistant Secretaries, Assistant Treasurers and other officers. Any number of offices may be held by the same person, unless otherwise prohibited by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws. The officers of the Corporation need not be stockholders of the Corporation nor, except in the case of the Chairman of the Board of Directors, need such officers be directors of the Corporation.

Section 2. Election. The Board of Directors, at its first meeting held after each Annual Meeting of Stockholders (or action by written consent of stockholders in lieu of the Annual Meeting of Stockholders), shall elect the officers of the Corporation who shall hold their offices for such terms and shall exercise such powers and perform such duties as shall be determined from time to time by the Board of Directors; and each officer of the Corporation shall hold office until such officer’s successor is elected and qualified, or until such officer’s earlier death, resignation or removal. Any officer elected by the Board of Directors may be removed at any time by the Board of Directors. Any vacancy occurring in any office of the Corporation shall be filled by the Board of Directors. The salaries and other compensation of all officers of the Corporation shall be fixed by the Board of Directors.

Section 3. Voting Securities Owned by the Corporation. Powers of attorney, proxies, waivers of notice of meeting, consents and other instruments relating to securities owned by the Corporation may be executed in the name of and on behalf of the Corporation by the President or any Vice President or any other officer authorized to do so by the Board of Directors and any such

 

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officer may, in the name of and on behalf of the Corporation, take all such action as any such officer may deem advisable to vote in person or by proxy at any meeting of security holders of any corporation or other entity in which the Corporation may own securities and at any such meeting shall possess and may exercise any and all rights and power incident to the ownership of such securities and which, as the owner thereof, the Corporation might have exercised and possessed if present. The Board of Directors may, by resolution, from time to time confer like powers upon any other person or persons.

Section 4. Chairman of the Board of Directors. The Chairman of the Board of Directors, if there be one, shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders and of the Board of Directors. The Chairman of the Board of Directors shall be the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation, unless the Board of Directors designates the President as the Chief Executive Officer, and, except where by law the signature of the President is required, the Chairman of the Board of Directors shall possess the same power as the President to sign all contracts, certificates and other instruments of the Corporation which may be authorized by the Board of Directors. During the absence or disability of the President, the Chairman of the Board of Directors shall exercise all the powers and discharge all the duties of the President. The Chairman of the Board of Directors shall also perform such other duties and may exercise such other powers as may from time to time be assigned by these Bylaws or by the Board of Directors.

Section 5. President. The President shall, subject to the oversight and control of the Board of Directors and, if there be one, the Chairman of the Board of Directors, have general supervision of the business of the Corporation and shall see that all orders and resolutions of the Board of Directors are carried into effect. The President shall execute all bonds, mortgages, contracts and other instruments of the Corporation requiring a seal, under the seal of the Corporation, except where required or permitted by law to be otherwise signed and executed and except that the other officers of the Corporation may sign and execute documents when so authorized by these Bylaws, the Board of Directors or the President. In the absence or disability of the Chairman of the Board of Directors, or if there be none, the President shall preside at all meetings of the stockholders and, if the President is also a director, the Board of Directors. If there be no Chairman of the Board of Directors, or if the Board of Directors shall otherwise designate, the President shall be the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation. The President shall also perform such other duties and may exercise such other powers as may from time to time be assigned to such officer by these Bylaws or by the Board of Directors.

Section 6. Vice Presidents. At the request of the President or in the President’s absence or in the event of the President’s inability or refusal to act (and if there be no Chairman of the Board of Directors), the Vice President, or the Vice Presidents if there are more than one (in the order designated by the Board of Directors), shall perform the duties of the President, and when so acting, shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the President. Each Vice President shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as the Board of Directors from time to time may prescribe. If there be no Chairman of the Board of Directors and no Vice President, the Board of Directors shall designate the officer of the Corporation who, in the absence of the President or in the event of the inability or refusal of the President to act, shall perform the duties of the President, and when so acting, shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the President.

 

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Section 7. Secretary. The Secretary shall attend all meetings of the Board of Directors and all meetings of the stockholders and record all the proceedings thereat in a book or books to be kept for that purpose; the Secretary shall also perform like duties for committees of the Board of Directors when required. The Secretary shall give, or cause to be given, notice of all meetings of the stockholders and special meetings of the Board of Directors, and shall perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board of Directors or the President, under whose supervision the Secretary shall be. If the Secretary shall be unable or shall refuse to cause to be given notice of all meetings of the stockholders and special meetings of the Board of Directors, and if there be no Assistant Secretary, then either the Board of Directors or the President may choose another officer to cause such notice to be given. The Secretary shall have custody of the seal of the Corporation and the Secretary or any Assistant Secretary, if there be one, shall have authority to affix the same to any instrument requiring it and when so affixed, it may be attested by the signature of the Secretary or by the signature of any such Assistant Secretary. The Board of Directors may give general authority to any other officer to affix the seal of the Corporation and to attest to the affixing by such officer’s signature. The Secretary shall see that all books, reports, statements, certificates and other documents and records required by law to be kept or filed are properly kept or filed, as the case may be.

Section 8. Treasurer. The Treasurer shall have the custody of the Corporation’s funds and securities and shall keep full and accurate accounts of receipts and disbursements in books belonging to the Corporation and shall deposit all moneys and other valuable effects in the name and to the credit of the Corporation in such depositories as may be designated by the Board of Directors. The Treasurer shall disburse the funds of the Corporation as may be ordered by the Board of Directors, taking proper vouchers for such disbursements, and shall render to the President and the Board of Directors, at its regular meetings, or when the Board of Directors so requires, an account of all transactions as Treasurer and of the financial condition of the Corporation. If required by the Board of Directors, the Treasurer shall give the Corporation a bond in such sum and with such surety or sureties as shall be satisfactory to the Board of Directors for the faithful performance of the duties of the office of the Treasurer and for the restoration to the Corporation, in case of the Treasurer’s death, resignation, retirement or removal from office, of all books, papers, vouchers, money and other property of whatever kind in the Treasurer’s possession or under the Treasurer’s control belonging to the Corporation.

Section 9. Assistant Secretaries. Assistant Secretaries, if there be any, shall perform such duties and have such powers as from time to time may be assigned to them by the Board of Directors, the President, any Vice President, if there be one, or the Secretary, and in the absence of the Secretary or in the event of the Secretary’s inability or refusal to act, shall perform the duties of the Secretary, and when so acting, shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the Secretary.

Section 10. Assistant Treasurers. Assistant Treasurers, if there be any, shall perform such duties and have such powers as from time to time may be assigned to them by the Board of Directors, the President, any Vice President, if there be one, or the Treasurer, and in the absence of the Treasurer or in the event of the Treasurer’s inability or refusal to act, shall perform the duties of the Treasurer, and when so acting, shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the Treasurer. If required by the Board of Directors, an Assistant Treasurer shall give the Corporation a bond in such sum and with such surety or sureties as shall be satisfactory

 

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to the Board of Directors for the faithful performance of the duties of the office of Assistant Treasurer and for the restoration to the Corporation, in case of the Assistant Treasurer’s death, resignation, retirement or removal from office, of all books, papers, vouchers, money and other property of whatever kind in the Assistant Treasurer’s possession or under the Assistant Treasurer’s control belonging to the Corporation.

Section 11. Other Officers. Such other officers as the Board of Directors may choose shall perform such duties and have such powers as from time to time may be assigned to them by the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may delegate to any other officer of the Corporation the power to choose such other officers and to prescribe their respective duties and powers.

ARTICLE V

STOCK

Section 1. Form of Certificates. Except as otherwise provided in a resolution approved by the Board of Directors, all shares of capital stock of the Corporation shall be uncertificated shares.

Section 2. Signatures. Any or all of the signatures on a certificate may be a facsimile. In case any officer, transfer agent or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate shall have ceased to be such officer, transfer agent or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued by the Corporation with the same effect as if such person were such officer, transfer agent or registrar at the date of issue.

Section 3. Lost Certificates. The Board of Directors may direct a new certificate or uncertificated shares be issued in place of any certificate theretofore issued by the Corporation alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed, upon the making of an affidavit of that fact by the person claiming the certificate of stock to be lost, stolen or destroyed. When authorizing such issuance of a new certificate or uncertificated shares, the Board of Directors may, in its discretion and as a condition precedent to the issuance thereof, require the owner of such lost, stolen or destroyed certificate, or such owner’s legal representative, to advertise the same in such manner as the Board of Directors shall require and/or to give the Corporation a bond in such sum as it may direct as indemnity against any claim that may be made against the Corporation on account of the alleged loss, theft or destruction of such certificate or the issuance of such new certificate or uncertificated shares.

Section 4. Transfers. Stock of the Corporation shall be transferable in the manner prescribed by applicable law and in these Bylaws. Transfers of stock shall be made on the books of the Corporation, and in the case of certificated shares of stock, only by the person named in the certificate or by such person’s attorney lawfully constituted in writing and upon the surrender of the certificate therefor, properly endorsed for transfer and payment of all necessary transfer taxes; or, in the case of uncertificated shares of stock, upon receipt of proper transfer instructions from the registered holder of the shares or by such person’s attorney lawfully constituted in writing, and upon payment of all necesssary transfer taxes and compliance with appropriate procedures for transferring shares in uncertificated form; provided, however, that such surrender and

 

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endorsement, compliance or payment of taxes shall not be required in any case in which the officers of the Corporation shall determine to waive such requirement. With respect to certificated shares of stock, every certificate exchanged, returned or surrendered to the Corporation shall be marked “Cancelled,” with the date of cancellation, by the Secretary or Assistant Secretary of the Corporation or the transfer agent thereof. No transfer of stock shall be valid as against the Corporation for any purpose until it shall have been entered in the stock records of the Corporation by an entry showing from and to whom transferred.

Section 5. Dividend Record Date. In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights or the stockholders entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock, or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the Board of Directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted, and which record date shall be not more than sixty (60) days prior to such action. If no record date is fixed, the record date for determining stockholders for any such purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board of Directors adopts the resolution relating thereto.

Section 6. Record Owners. The Corporation shall be entitled to recognize the exclusive right of a person registered on its books as the owner of shares to receive dividends, and to vote as such owner, and to hold liable for calls and assessments a person registered on its books as the owner of shares, and shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such share or shares on the part of any other person, whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise required by law.

Section 7. Transfer and Registry Agents. The Corporation may from time to time maintain one or more transfer offices or agencies and registry offices or agencies at such place or places as may be determined from time to time by the Board of Directors.

ARTICLE VI

NOTICES

Section 1. Notices. Whenever written notice is required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, to be given to any director, member of a committee or stockholder, such notice may be given in writing directed to such director’s, committee member’s or stockholder’s mailing address (or by electronic transmission directed to such director’s, committee member’s or stockholder’ electronic mail address, as applicable) as it appears on the records of the Corporation and shall be given: (a) if mailed, when the notice is deposited in the United States mail, postage prepaid, (b) if delivered by courier service, the earlier of when the notice is received or left at such director’s, committee member’s or stockholder’s address or (c) if given by electronic mail, when directed to such director’s, committee member’s or stockholder’s electronic mail address unless such director, committee member or stockholder has notified the corporation in writing or by electronic transmission of an objection to receiving notice by electronic mail or such notice is prohibited by the under applicable law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws. Without limiting the manner by which notice otherwise may be given effectively to stockholders, but subject to Section 232(e) of the DGCL, any notice to stockholders given by the Corporation

 

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under applicable law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws shall be effective if given by a form of electronic transmission consented to by the stockholder to whom the notice is given. Any such consent shall be revocable by the stockholder by written notice or electronic transmission to the Corporation. Notice given by electronic transmission, as described above, shall be deemed given: (i) if by facsimile telecommunication, when directed to a number at which the stockholder has consented to receive notice; (ii) if by a posting on an electronic network, together with separate notice to the stockholder of such specific posting, upon the later of (A) such posting and (B) the giving of such separate notice; and (iii) if by any other form of electronic transmission, when directed to the stockholder. Notwithstanding the foregoing, a notice may not be given by an electronic transmission from and after the time that (i) the Corporation is unable to deliver by such electronic transmission two consecutive notices given by the Corporation and (ii) such inability becomes known to the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Corporation or to the transfer agent, or other person responsible for the giving of notice; provided, however, the inadvertent failure to discover such inability shall not invalidate any meeting or other action.

Section 2. Waivers of Notice. Whenever any notice is required, by applicable law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws, to be given to any director, member of a committee or stockholder, a waiver thereof in writing, signed by the person or persons entitled to notice, or a waiver by electronic transmission by the person or persons entitled to notice, whether before or after the time stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent thereto. Attendance of a person at a meeting, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except where the person attends the meeting for the express purpose of objecting at the beginning of the meeting to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any Annual or Special Meeting of Stockholders or any regular or special meeting of the directors or members of a committee of directors need be specified in any written waiver of notice or any waiver by electronic transmission unless so required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws.

ARTICLE VII

GENERAL PROVISIONS

Section 1. Dividends. Dividends upon the capital stock of the Corporation, subject to the requirements of the DGCL and the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation, if any, may be declared by the Board of Directors at any regular or special meeting of the Board of Directors (or any action by written consent in lieu thereof in accordance with Section 8 of Article III hereof), and may be paid in cash, in property, or in shares of the Corporation’s capital stock. Before payment of any dividend, there may be set aside out of any funds of the Corporation available for dividends such sum or sums as the Board of Directors from time to time, in its absolute discretion, deems proper as a reserve or reserves to meet contingencies, or for purchasing any of the shares of capital stock, warrants, rights, options, bonds, debentures, notes, scrip or other securities or evidences of indebtedness of the Corporation, or for equalizing dividends, or for repairing or maintaining any property of the Corporation, or for any proper purpose, and the Board of Directors may modify or abolish any such reserve.

 

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Section 2. Disbursements. All checks or demands for money and notes of the Corporation shall be signed by such officer or officers or such other person or persons as the Board of Directors may from time to time designate.

Section 3. Fiscal Year. The fiscal year of the Corporation shall be fixed by resolution of the Board of Directors.

Section 4. Corporate Seal. The corporate seal shall have inscribed thereon the name of the Corporation, the year of its organization and the words “Corporate Seal, Delaware”. The seal may be used by causing it or a facsimile thereof to be impressed or affixed or reproduced or otherwise.

ARTICLE VIII

INDEMNIFICATION

Section 1. Power to Indemnify in Actions, Suits or Proceedings other than Those by or in the Right of the Corporation. Subject to Section 3 of this Article VIII, the Corporation shall indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (other than an action by or in the right of the Corporation), by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director or officer of the Corporation, or is or was a director or officer of the Corporation serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with such action, suit or proceeding if such person acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe such person’s conduct was unlawful. The termination of any action, suit or proceeding by judgment, order, settlement, conviction, or upon a plea of nolo contendere or its equivalent, shall not, of itself, create a presumption that the person did not act in good faith and in a manner which such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had reasonable cause to believe that such person’s conduct was unlawful.

Section 2. Power to Indemnify in Actions, Suits or Proceedings by or in the Right of the Corporation. Subject to Section 3 of this Article VIII, the Corporation shall indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action or suit by or in the right of the Corporation to procure a judgment in its favor by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director or officer of the Corporation, or is or was a director or officer of the Corporation serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with the defense or settlement of such action or suit if such person acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation; except that no indemnification shall be made in respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the Corporation unless and

 

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only to the extent that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or the court in which such action or suit was brought shall determine upon application that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all the circumstances of the case, such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses which the Court of Chancery or such other court shall deem proper.

Section 3. Authorization of Indemnification. Any indemnification under this Article VIII (unless ordered by a court) shall be made by the Corporation only as authorized in the specific case upon a determination that indemnification of the present or former director or officer is proper in the circumstances because such person has met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in Section 1 or Section 2 of this Article VIII, as the case may be. Such determination shall be made, with respect to a person who is a director or officer of the Corporation at the time of such determination, (i) by a majority vote of the directors who are not parties to such action, suit or proceeding, even though less than a quorum, or (ii) by a committee of such directors designated by a majority vote of such directors, even though less than a quorum, or (iii) if there are no such directors, or if such directors so direct, by independent legal counsel in a written opinion or (iv) by the stockholders. Such determination shall be made, with respect to former directors and officers, by any person or persons having the authority to act on the matter on behalf of the Corporation. To the extent, however, that a present or former director or officer of the Corporation has been successful on the merits or otherwise in defense of any action, suit or proceeding described above, or in defense of any claim, issue or matter therein, such person shall be indemnified against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection therewith, without the necessity of authorization in the specific case.

Section 4. Good Faith Defined. For purposes of any determination under Section 3 of this Article VIII, a person shall be deemed to have acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation, or, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, to have had no reasonable cause to believe such person’s conduct was unlawful, if such person’s action is based on the records or books of account of the Corporation or another enterprise, or on information supplied to such person by the officers of the Corporation or another enterprise in the course of their duties, or on the advice of legal counsel for the Corporation or another enterprise or on information or records given or reports made to the Corporation or another enterprise by an independent certified public accountant or by an appraiser or other expert selected with reasonable care by the Corporation or another enterprise. The provisions of this Section 4 shall not be deemed to be exclusive or to limit in any way the circumstances in which a person may be deemed to have met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in Section 1 or Section 2 of this Article VIII, as the case may be.

Section 5. Indemnification by a Court. Notwithstanding any contrary determination in the specific case under Section 3 of this Article VIII, and notwithstanding the absence of any determination thereunder, any director or officer may apply to the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or any other court of competent jurisdiction in the State of Delaware for indemnification to the extent otherwise permissible under Section 1 or Section 2 of this Article VIII. The basis of such indemnification by a court shall be a determination by such court that indemnification of the director or officer is proper in the circumstances because such person has met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in Section 1 or Section 2 of this Article VIII, as the case may be. Neither a contrary determination in the specific case under Section 3 of this

 

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Article VIII nor the absence of any determination thereunder shall be a defense to such application or create a presumption that the director or officer seeking indemnification has not met any applicable standard of conduct. Notice of any application for indemnification pursuant to this Section 5 shall be given to the Corporation promptly upon the filing of such application. If successful, in whole or in part, the director or officer seeking indemnification shall also be entitled to be paid the expense of prosecuting such application.

Section 6. Expenses Payable in Advance. Expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by a director or officer of the Corporation in defending any civil, criminal, administrative or investigative action, suit or proceeding shall be paid by the Corporation in advance of the final disposition of such action, suit or proceeding upon receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of such director or officer to repay such amount if it shall ultimately be determined that such person is not entitled to be indemnified by the Corporation as authorized in this Article VIII. Such expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by former directors and officers or other employees and agents of the Corporation or by persons serving at the request of the Corporation as directors, officers, employees or agents of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise may be so paid upon such terms and conditions, if any, as the Corporation deems appropriate.

Section 7. Nonexclusivity of Indemnification and Advancement of Expenses. The indemnification and advancement of expenses provided by, or granted pursuant to, this Article VIII shall not be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which those seeking indemnification or advancement of expenses may be entitled under the Certificate of Incorporation, these Bylaws, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise, both as to action in such person’s official capacity and as to action in another capacity while holding such office, it being the policy of the Corporation that indemnification of the persons specified in Section 1 and Section 2 of this Article VIII shall be made to the fullest extent permitted by law. A right to indemnification or to advancement of expenses arising under a provision of the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws shall not be eliminated or impaired by an amendment to the Certificate of Incorporation or these Bylaws after the occurrence of the act or omission that is the subject of the civil, criminal, administrative or investigative action, suit or proceeding for which indemnification or advancement of expenses is sought, unless the provision in effect at the time of such act or omission explicitly authorizes such elimination or impairment after such action or omission has occurred. The provisions of this Article VIII shall not be deemed to preclude the indemnification of any person who is not specified in Section 1 or Section 2 of this Article VIII but whom the Corporation has the power or obligation to indemnify, under the provisions of the DGCL, or otherwise.

Section 8. Insurance. The Corporation may purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director or officer of the Corporation, or is or was a director or officer of the Corporation serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against any liability asserted against such person and incurred by such person in any such capacity, or arising out of such person’s status as such, whether or not the Corporation would have the power or the obligation to indemnify such person against such liability under the provisions of this Article VIII.

 

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Section 9. Certain Definitions. For purposes of this Article VIII, references to “the Corporation” shall include, in addition to the resulting corporation, any constituent corporation (including any constituent of a constituent) absorbed in a consolidation or merger which, if its separate existence had continued, would have had power and authority to indemnify its directors or officers, so that any person who is or was a director or officer of such constituent corporation, or is or was a director or officer of such constituent corporation serving at the request of such constituent corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, shall stand in the same position under the provisions of this Article VIII with respect to the resulting or surviving corporation as such person would have with respect to such constituent corporation if its separate existence had continued. The term “another enterprise” as used in this Article VIII shall mean any other corporation or any partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise of which such person is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent. For purposes of this Article VIII, references to “fines” shall include any excise taxes assessed on a person with respect to an employee benefit plan; and references to “serving at the request of the Corporation” shall include any service as a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation which imposes duties on, or involves services by, such director or officer with respect to an employee benefit plan, its participants or beneficiaries; and a person who acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in the interest of the participants and beneficiaries of an employee benefit plan shall be deemed to have acted in a manner “not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation” as referred to in this Article VIII.

Section 10. Survival of Indemnification and Advancement of Expenses. The indemnification and advancement of expenses provided by, or granted pursuant to, this Article VIII shall, unless otherwise provided when authorized or ratified, continue as to a person who has ceased to be a director or officer and shall inure to the benefit of the heirs, executors and administrators of such a person.

Section 11. Limitation on Indemnification. Notwithstanding anything contained in this Article VIII to the contrary, except for proceedings to enforce rights to indemnification (which shall be governed by Section 5 of this Article VIII), the Corporation shall not be obligated to indemnify any director or officer (or his or her heirs, executors or personal or legal representatives) or advance expenses in connection with a proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such person unless such proceeding (or part thereof) was authorized or consented to by the Board of Directors of the Corporation.

Section 12. Indemnification of Employees and Agents. The Corporation may, to the extent authorized from time to time by the Board of Directors, provide rights to indemnification and to the advancement of expenses to employees and agents of the Corporation similar to those conferred in this Article VIII to directors and officers of the Corporation.

 

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ARTICLE IX

FORUM FOR ADJUDICATION OF CERTAIN DISPUTES

Section 1. Forum for Adjudication of Certain Disputes. Unless the Corporation consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum (an “Alternative Forum Consent”), the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware shall be the sole and exclusive forum for (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Corporation, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of a duty (including any fiduciary duty) owed by any current or former director, officer, stockholder, employee or agent of the Corporation to the Corporation or the Corporation’s stockholders, (iii) any action asserting a claim against the Corporation or any current or former director, officer, stockholder, employee or agent of the Corporation arising out of or relating to any provision of the General Corporation Law of Delaware or the Corporation’s Certificate of Incorporation or Bylaws (each, as in effect from time to time), or (iv) any action asserting a claim against the Corporation or any current or former director, officer, stockholder, employee or agent of the Corporation governed by the internal affairs doctrine of the State of Delaware; provided, however, that, in the event that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware lacks subject matter jurisdiction over any such action or proceeding, the sole and exclusive forum for such action or proceeding shall be another state or federal court located within the State of Delaware, in each such case, unless the Court of Chancery (or such other state or federal court located within the State of Delaware, as applicable) has dismissed a prior action by the same plaintiff asserting the same claims because such court lacked personal jurisdiction over an indispensable party named as a defendant therein. Unless the Corporation gives an Alternative Forum Consent, the federal district courts of the United States of America shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the sole and exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended. Failure to enforce the foregoing provisions would cause the Corporation irreparable harm and the Corporation shall be entitled to equitable relief, including injunctive relief and specific performance, to enforce the foregoing provisions. Any person or entity purchasing, otherwise acquiring or holding any interest in shares of capital stock of the Corporation shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to the provisions of this Section 1 of Article IX. The existence of any prior Alternative Forum Consent shall not act as a waiver of the Corporation’s ongoing consent right as set forth above in this Section 1 of Article IX with respect to any current or future actions or claims.

ARTICLE X

AMENDMENTS

Section 1. Amendments. These Bylaws may be altered, amended or repealed, in whole or in part, or new Bylaws may be adopted by the stockholders or by the Board of Directors; provided, however, that notice of such alteration, amendment, repeal or adoption of new Bylaws be contained in the notice of a meeting of the stockholders or Board of Directors, as the case may be, called for the purpose of acting upon any proposed alteration, amendment, repeal or adoption of new Bylaws. All such alterations, amendments, repeals or adoptions of new Bylaws must be approved by either the holders of a majority of the outstanding capital stock entitled to vote thereon or by a majority of the entire Board of Directors then in office. Any amendment to these Bylaws adopted by stockholders which specifies the votes that shall be necessary for the election of directors shall not be further amended or repealed by the Board of Directors.

Section 2. Entire Board of Directors. As used in this Article X and in these Bylaws generally, the term “entire Board of Directors” means the total number of directors which the Corporation would have if there were no vacancies.

 

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* * *

Adopted as of: July 15, 2021

Last Amended as of:                     

 

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